Monday, December 19, 2011

Gen. Francisco Macabulos and Sta. Ignacia, Tarlac: The Untold History

What is the untold origin of Francisco Macabulos Soliman Estate and Sta. Ignacia, Tarlac?

Francisco Macabulos (September 17, 1871-April 30, 1922) was a Filipino patriot who led Katipunan revolutionary forces during thePhilippine Revolution against Spain in 1896.

1898 - 1900

He was born in La PazTarlac to Alejandro Macabulos of LubaoPampanga and Gregoria Soliman. He organized the first Katipunan group there after he was inducted into the secret society by Ladislao Diwa in 1896. When the revolution broke out in 1898, he liberated Tarlac and established town councils in areas he liberted.
Macabulos refused to honor the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which called for a truce with the Spanish colonial government, and continued operations in Central Luzon. But on January 14, 1898, he disbanded his troops and accepted amnesty after receiving P14,000 as part of Spanish reparations to Filipino revolutionaries. Macabulos distributed the money to his men.
However, he resumed operations against the Spanish and on April 17, 1898, an assembly of citizens representing the town councils Macabulos established, calling themselves representatives of Central Luzon, met and drafted a provisional constitution. They created a government that was to exist until a revolutionary government is established. Macabulos' government was headed by a general executive committee, consisting of a president, vice president, secretary of interior, secretary of war and a secretary of the treasury.
Macabulos dissolved his government after the First Philippine Republic was created by the Malolos Constitution, which he also signed. He also led his men to free nearby provinces, like Pangasinan where he led revolutionists in the Battle of Dagupan.

Santa Ignacia is a 2nd class municipality in the province of TarlacPhilippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 43,560 people in 8,145 households. Area: 146.07 km2 (56.4 sq mi) or 14,600 hectares.


Here are some of my recent findings, not as a professional historian, but as a curious individual.

These findings are based on commercial and legal documents whose original purposes were for documentation as required by law and contracts.

Yet, such documents are a very important source of history.

After all, history is sourced from documents, not the other way around.

Now, let us proceed to the untold history.

Here is what history books do not tell us. This origin is taken from a document. Remember, documents were not written for history. There were encoded and entered as transactions in the ordinary course of business on a day to day basis. Unlike history, documents do not make up angles or perspectives or interpretations.

One document, a certificate of land title, numbered OCT-01-4 which was created formally in 1764 (yes, it's that old), was preserved, and re-constituted, and re-created and re-registered whenever the land registration laws changed over the years, contains certain annotations at the back.

One such annotation is relevant to:

Francisco Macabulos Soliman Estate and Sta. Ignacia, Tarlac

This annotation was dated Feb 7, 1899 and the annotation was numbered DC-074 S-2-7-1899.

Entry No EDC 073-S-2-6 1898, Real Estate Mortgage amounting to U.S. dollar 20,000,000.00 secured by this Land Title OCT No. T-01-4, embracing the area of Hacienda Mabiga, Pampanga, Kuliat and Capaz, Tarlac to Banco Español-Filipino has been cancelled and this released forever of Real Estate Mortgage has been executed by the Bank in favor of the owner with the full payment of said principal loan and an interest US Dollar 2,000,000.00, the payment of which has broken as follows: General Miguel Malvar correspondingly acquired the area of Tanauan, Batangas and had paid the account of US Dollar 3,300,000.00; Don Servillano Aquino acquired the whole area of Bamban and Capaz, Tarlac and correspondingly paid the account the sum of US Dollar 3,300,000.00; General Antonio Luna acquired the whole San Miguel, Tarlac and La Paz, Tarlac and he paid the account of US Dollar 2,000,000.00, the land was given as a gift to his girlfriend, Miss Luisita Cojuangco: Don Mariano Tayag acquired the area of Kuliat and Mabiga 1,500 hectares (Pampanga) correspondingly paid the account, the sum of US Dollar 3,300,000.00; Don Francisco Macabulos acquired the area of Sta. Ignacia, Tarlac and had paid correspondingly the account, the sum of US Dollar 2,400,000.00; Don Juan Ejercito acquired absolutely the San Juan Del Monte Hacienda embracing up to Sitio Mandaluyong consisting an area of 3,154 hectares and had correspondingly paid the account of US Dollar 3,300,000.00 and DonEsteban Benitez Tallano (Tagean) maintained his rights being the owner over the unacquired Estate and had paid the balance of 6,600,000.00 U.S. Dollar.
Ad Interim Land Registrar
February 7, 1899

What does the above transactional annotation document in the land title OCT-01-4 tell us?

It tells us what history books have failed to capture.

1. Francisco Macabulos had US$2.4 million.

(He was the grandfather of Ninoy Aquino, and the great grandfather of Noynoy Aquino III, the president of the Philippines from 2010-)

2.  We did not know how he obtained such amount.

This annotation is about the redemption of Hacienda Mabiga from Banco Espanol-Filipino with a principal loan amount of $20 million with interest of US$2 million per annum.

Note the names of the people involved in this annotation. General Servillano Aquino, and Francisco Macabulos, General Antonio Luna were revolutionary generals.

Where did these generals get millions of dollars?

And how come these generals were the ones who redeemed the Real Estate Mortgage of Hacienda Mabiga from Banco Espanol-Filipino (now Bank of the Philippine Islands or BPI?)

In an earlier annotation to this title, in fact the immediately preceding annotation, the Tallano mortgaged Hacienda Mabiga to Banco Espano-Filipino (now BPI). (See separate article on this annotation).

Note that Hacienda Mabiga was mortaged by Tallano family with Banco Espanol-Filipino for US$20 million and this amount was the same money used by the US government to the Spain as payment for the Philippines under the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898.

Also, note that this annotation was dated Feb 7, 1899. This was after the Treaty of Paris (Dec 10, 1898) for which the United States paid US$20 million to Spain.

In another annotation, you will be able to cross-corroborate that the Tallano family was the source of the US$20 million used by the Americans to pay the Spaniards!

In another notation, you will also be able to cross-correlate the money paid to the Revolutionary Leaders also came from the Tallano Family.

3.  Francisco Macabulos Soliman  purchased land from the  Esteban Benitez Tallano.

4. The total land area covered Sta. Ignacia, Tarlac.
Today Sta. Ignacia is about 14,600 hectares. Note the boundaries in 1899 does not necessarily coincide with today's boundaries. It could have been bigger before then subdivided into several towns.

5. The annotation was signed by Benito Legarda, the ad interim Land Registar.

As you have noticed, the annotations and the history accounts dovetail in agreement.

This is what the history books failed to capture, but in reality was documented not by a historian, but by an officer who was doing his work in the ordinary course of business on day to day basis.

And this is a validation, once again, of the existence, the validity, and the authenticity of Torrens Title OCT-01-4 issued in favor of

"Prince Lacan Acuña Tallano Tagean (formerly Tagean Clan), married with
Princess Rowena Ma. Elizabeth Overbeck Macleod of Austria,
the owner in Fee simple of certain lands, known as HACIENDA FILIPINA"

(email me to get a scanned copy of the title issued by the register of deeds)

Note: The early transcriptions were in Spanish but the government had its translated into English through the efforts of then Solicitor General Felix Makasiar under Pres. Diosdado Macapagal (who later become Chief Justice under Marcos). Therefore, the government itself has consistently recognized the validity and the authenticity of OCT 01-4.

History from original source documents! What a refreshing perspective!

1 comment:

  1. Anonymous8:38 PM

    Dear Sir/Madam,

    Pls. be informed that Gen. Sevillano Aquino, is the father of Benigno Aquino, Sr.,
    Hence, they are the great grand father and grandfather of the president Benigno Simeon Aquino, III. The information that Gen. Luna had paid for the land and gave it to Miss Luisita Cojuangco as gift is shocking. I believe this land is now we know as Hacienda Luisita. However, I need to verify the document itself. Please email same to me at