Friday, December 23, 2011

BPI (Bank of the Philippine Islands) formerly Banco Espanol-Filipino: The Untold History

What is the untold history of BPI (Bank of the Philippine Islands) formerly known as Banco Espanol-Filipino?

First, let us have some background of BPI. Towards the end of this article, you will find out what is its secret history.


Bank of the Philippine Islands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Banco Español-Filipino de Isabel II)
Bank of the Philippine Islands
TypePublic (PSEBPI)
IndustryFinance and Insurance
FoundedManilaPhilippines (1851)
HeadquartersMakatiPhilippines
Key peopleJaime Augusto Zobel de Ayala II, Chairman
Dr. Patisha Zobel de Ayala, Chairman Emeritus
Aurelio R. Montinola III, President
ProductsFinancial Services
Net incomePHP 11.30 billion (US$ 259.77 million) (Dec 2010)
Total assetsPHP 878.15 billion (US$ 20.19 billion) (Dec 2010)/ Managed Funds = PHP 1.47 trillion (US$34.19 billion) (Sept. 2011)
Employees12,089
Websitewww.bpi.com.ph
Bank of the Philippine Islands (SpanishBanco de las Islas Filipinas, commonly known as BPIPSEBPI) is the oldest bank in the Philippines still in operation and is the country's third largest bank in terms of assets, the country's largest bank in terms of market capitalization, and the country's most profitable bank. It is owned by the Ayala Corporation - the largest conglomerate in the Philippines, and is based in Makati's Central Business District, on the corner of Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas.
BPI is also the oldest bank in Southeast Asia and has a long and distinguished history that spans over a century. It has either influenced or has been influenced by many nations, including parts of the former Spanish Empire, especiallyMexico, and the United States. While it is considered by many as an old institution, BPI is trying to promote itself as a dynamic institution that caters to its various clients, which hail from various sectors of Philippine society.
BPI also pioneered rural banking in the Philippines, as its countryside banking operations preceded that of many other banks' rural banking operations by many years. Today, it maintains a large rural branch network, with some branches dating bank to the Spanish or American colonial periods. Its branch network of 831 branches is by far the largest branch network of any bank in the Philippines.
The bank has received several awards from various financial magazines, such as Euromoney the Far Eastern Economic ReviewThe BankerEuromoneyFinance Asia, and Global Finance . Its most recent award was from Asiamoney. In April 2010, which the bank was awarded as the Philippines' Strongest Bank. In 2009, the bank bags 10 awards as the Best Domestic Bank; Best Local Cash Management Bank in the Philippines as voted by Small-Sized Corporations; Best Local Cash Management Bank in the Philippines as voted by Medium-Sized Corporations; Best Local Cash Management Bank in the Philippines as voted by Large-Sized Corporations; Best Domestic Provider of FX Services in the Philippines as voted by Corporates; Best Domestic FX Provider of FX Prime Broking Services in the Philippines as voted by Corporates; Best Domestic FX Provider of Single-Bank Electronic Trading Platform.

Contents

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[edit]History


BPI headquarters in Makati.
BPI was established on August 1, 1851 as the Banco Español- Filipina de Isabel II (Spanish-Filipino Bank of Isabel II), named after the queen ofSpainIsabella II, the daughter of former king Ferdinand VII. The bank was the second Philippine bank during the Spanish era after a bank was founded by Francisco Rodriguez, a Filipino Quaker based in London, in 1830. Today, Rodriguez's bank no longer exists.
The royal decree establishing the Banco Español-Filipino also gave it the power to print Philippine currency, the first time the Philippine peso was printed in the country (before 1851, a multitude of currencies were used, most notably the Mexican peso). They were originally called pesos fuertes(PF), or "strong pesos". First printed on May 1, 1852, they were reedemable at face value for gold or silver Mexican coins. The first deposit with the bank was also done on that day by a man named Fulgencio Barrera. Three days later, a Chinese man named Tadian became the first borrowing client of the bank after the bank discounted to him a promissory note amounting to ten thousand pesos fuertes.
On September 3, 1869, following a revolution which overthrew Isabella II, the name was changed to Banco Español-Filipino. In January 1892, the bank moved from the Royal Custom House in Intramuros to the new business district of Binondo, north of the Pasig River after it found out that Intramuros was becoming "economically inactive". It moved to 4 Plaza Cervantes, which was at that time a prime property owned by theDominican friars.
The first branch of Banco Español-Filipino outside Manila was opened in Iloilo on March 15, 1897. However, the idea to set up branches outside Manila was formulated as far back as the 1850s, with the first branch planned to be opened in Bacolor, the capital of Pampanga at the time. But by then, Iloilo and other provinces in Panay became more productive than Pampanga in the sugar industry, hence the move to open the first branch in Iloilo, which was then the Queen City of the South.
Following the cession of the Philippines to the United States following the signing of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the bank changed from a Spanish institution to a Philippine one. On January 1, 1912, a decision by the shareholders of Banco Español-Filipino changed the name to the present Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI), or Banco de las Islas Filipinas in Spanish. The basis for the name change was Act No. 1790, passed on October 12, 1907, which permitted the bank to change its name. The bank was also privatized during the American colonial period.
Following World War II, BPI was actively involved in the post-war reconstruction of the Philippines. In 1949, with the establishment of the Central Bank of the Philippines (now the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas), BPI (and other banks issuing Philippine currency) lost the right to issue Philippine pesos, a right it had since the Spanish colonial era and (with competition from other banks) during the American colonial period.
In 1969, Ayala Corporation, which had been affiliated with BPI since its establishment in 1851, became the dominant shareholder of BPI and eventually made BPI into the flagship of Ayala's financial entities.
Starting in the 1970s, BPI has been involved with many mergers and acquisitions. The first merger occurred in 1974 with BPI's acquisition of the People's Bank and Trust Company. Major notable acquisitions includeCitytrust Savings Bank, a unit of Citibank, in 1996 and Far East Bank and Trust Company on April 7, 2000. The merger with Far East Bank is arguably one of the largest in the Philippine banking history(The largest merger before that was the EBC-PCI Merger but since then surpassed by the BDO-EPCI Merger). In 2002 with the acquisition of DBS Bank Philippines, a subsidiary of DBS Bank. However, the BPI-DBS deal permitted DBS Bank to hold a stake in BPI. The latest acquisition occurred in 2005 with the acquisition of Prudential Bank.
In 1982, BPI became a universal bank, and in 2000, became the Philippines' first bancassurance firm, being the first Philippine bank to offer insurance services after acquiring the insurance companies of the Ayala Group, the parent company of the Ayala Corporation. Within that year, BPI also founded the BPI Direct Savings Bank, anInternet bank, which launched BPI into 21st century banking.
Today, BPI has maintained a leadership position in consumer banking, trust banking and asset management, corporate banking/corporate finance and bancassurance. BPI boasts of having the country's largest combined network of branches/kiosk units and ATMs: over 830 branches with over 1,700 ATMs. 20,000 point-of-sale terminals nationwide to support its delivery of services, with over 300 corresponding banks worldwide, with 11,925 employees servicing more than 3 million depositors. Its asset management division - BPI Asset Management, is the industry leader and country's largest in trust and investment management with over P490 billion (US$11.26 billion) in total assets under its asset management division alone as of December 2010. Total assets reached P877 billion (US$19.71 billion) as of December 2010. BPI managed total funds (deposits - [P720 billion] and trust assets - [P490 billion] combined as of December 2010) amounting to P1.21 trillion (US $27.82 billion), making it the country's second largest in the banking industry.
BPI was named as the Top Commercial Bank for OFW Remittances for the third year in a row and was elevated to the BSP Hall of Fame. This outstanding performance in the remittance services was replicated in 2008 as volume picked up by another 35.4%, well ahead of the industry growth rate.
Aided by the bank's risk management policies, BPI was the only major bank with no exposure to Lehman Brothers, AIG and the subprime mortgage industry. The bank also ably managed market risks by adhering to prudential Value at Risk (VAR) limits and reduced its trading books by 21%. Net 30-day non-performing loans ratio (BSP version) improved to 2.9%, and non-performing assets dropped below 10%.
In December 2008, BPI issued P5.0 billion (US$105.26 million) in 10-year subordinated debt eligible as Lower Tier 2 capital out of a BSP-approved P15.0 billion (US$315.79 million) issuance. The issue was well received and fully subscribed. Yearend capital was lower at P63.9 billion (US$1.35 billion), as actual dividend payments of P8.0 billion (US$168.42 million) exceeded the net income for the year and on lower market valuation of securities. Overall capital adequacy ratio of 14.1% remained sufficient and well above the 10% regulatory minimum.
BPI's market capitalization stood at P210.0bn (US$4.83 billion), the highest among the listed banks, notwithstanding the 24.9% drop in the stock price. The bank retained its CAMELS 4 rating in the annual BSP examination, and was assigned a National Long-term Rating of AAA(phl) rating by FitchRatings.
On December 8, 2010, BPI bagged a deal to take over the local fund management business of Dutch financial giant ING. That deal will turn the Ayala-led bank into an investment powerhouse. Making its first major acquisition since the buyout of Prudential Bank from the Santos family in 2005, the 159-year-old BPI will soon manage P78.4 billion in assets currently under ING Investment Management's care, making BPI the country's largest investment house. Under the terms of the agreement, BPI will acquire 100 percent of ING Bank Manila's trust assets. The acquisition is subject to certain conditions, including regulatory approvals.
BPI also maintains a specialized network of remittance centers for servicing overseas remittances from contract workers and other Filipinos working abroad. At present, BPI has remittance centers and desks located in Hong Kong, USA and Europe.
For years, international publications and rating agencies have given annual awards to BPI as one of the best banks in the region. Among these are the Far Eastern Economic Review, The Banker, Euromoney, Asiamoney, BusinessWeek, The Asset, Global Finance, Finance Asia, Alpha Southeast Asia, and The Asian Banker.
BPI has been consistently cited for its above-average profitability, sufficient capital/assets, low-cost funding base and manageable non-performing loan levels. Fitch Ratings noted that BPI has a comprehensive risk management which is superior to that of its peer banks, and this serves as an important element in keeping BPI better positioned in Philippine banking in the years ahead.



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Here are some of my recent findings, not as a professional historian, but as a curious individual.

These findings are based on commercial and legal documents whose original purposes were for documentation as required by law and contracts.

Yet, such documents are a very important source of history.

After all, history is sourced from documents, not the other way around.

Now, let us proceed to the untold history.

Here is what history books do not tell us. This origin is taken from a document. Remember, documents were not written for history. There were encoded and entered as transactions in the ordinary course of business on a day to day basis. Unlike history, documents do not make up angles or perspectives or interpretations.

One document, a certificate of land title, numbered OCT-01-4 which was created formally in 1764 (yes, it's that old), was preserved, and re-constituted, and re-created and re-registered whenever the land registration laws changed over the years, contains certain annotations at the back.

One such annotation is relevant to:

Treaty of Paris December 10, 1898 and Banco Espanol-Filipino (now known as Bank of hte Philippine Islands or BPI)

The annotation is dated Feb 7, 1898 with annotation number EDC-073  s-2-6-1898 signed by 
FERMIN JAUDENES Y ALVAREZ, Ad Interim Governor General Royal Crown of Spain

EDC-073
S-2-6
1898
Secured by this Title, OCT No. T-01-4, Hacienda Mabiga embracing the whole Province of Pampanga, Kuliat, the whole of Bamban and Capaz, Tarlac has mortgage to the Banco Español-Filipino, the sum of U.S. Dollar 20,000,000.00. to undertake the payment of secession treaty between Spain and American for the ceding of the archipelago by the Spanish Government to the American Government be eventually reverted to the real land owner, Don Esteban Benitez Tallano.
Date of Document : February 2,1898
(Sgd) FERMIN JAUDENES Y ALVAREZ
Ad Interim Governor General Royal Crown of Spain
February 7, 1898



What does the above transactional annotation document in the land title OCT-01-4 tell us?

It tells us what history books have failed to capture.

1. A parcel of land referred to a Hacienda Mabiga had been mortgaged.

2. Hacienda Mabiga is secured by title OCT No. T-01-4.

3. Hacienda Mabiga embraces the whole Province of Pampanga, Kuliat, the whole of Bamban and Capaz, Tarlac.

4. Haciend Mabiga was mortgaged to Banco Espanol-Filipino (now known as Bank of the Philippine Islands or BPI).

5. The principal loan amount was US$20 million.

6. The annotation specifically mentions the purpose of the loan:  to undertake the payment of secession treaty between Spain and American for the ceding of the archipelago by the Spanish Government to the American Government.

7. A specific condition was imposed: be eventually reverted to the real land owner, Don Esteban Benitez Tallano.

8. The mortgage document was dated February 2, 1898.

9.  The real owner is Don Esteban Benitez Tallano.

10. This title was OCT No. T-01-4.

11. The annotation was signed by FERMIN JAUDENES Y ALVAREZ, Ad Interim Governor General Royal Crown of Spain.

12. The United States did not use its own money.

13. The money came from private persons, specifically the OCT No. T-01-4 owned Don Esteban Benitez Tallano, the heir of Prince Lacan

14. The Spaniards knew before December 10, 1898 that the money was already available

15. The money came from Banco Espanol-Filipino (now known as Bank of the Philippine Islands or BPI).

16. The sitting Spanish Governor General himself signed the annotation, further ensuring Spain that the money is available.

------------------------------------


As you have noticed, the annotations and the history accounts dovetail in agreement.

This is what the history books failed to capture, but in reality was documented not by a historian, but by an officer who was doing his work in the ordinary course of business on day to day basis.


And this is a validation, once again, of the existence, the validity, and the authenticity of Torrens Title OCT-01-4 issued in favor of


"Prince Lacan Acuña Tallano Tagean (formerly Tagean Clan), married with
Princess Rowena Ma. Elizabeth Overbeck Macleod of Austria,
the owner in Fee simple of certain lands, known as HACIENDA FILIPINA"

(email me to get a scanned copy of the title issued by the register of deeds)

Note: The early transcriptions were in Spanish but the government had its translated into English through the efforts of then Solicitor General Felix Makasiar under Pres. Diosdado Macapagal (who later become Chief Justice under Marcos). Therefore, the government itself has consistently recognized the validity and the authenticity of OCT 01-4.


History from original source documents! What a refreshing perspective!



Monday, December 19, 2011

The Untold History of Who Paid for the Treaty of Paris of 1898

Whose $20 million was used by the United States government to pay Spain for the Philippines?

This is the untold history. But first let us have background history. Towards the end of this article, you will find out the secret history of the payment of the US$20 million.


The Treaty of Paris of 1898 was signed on December 10, 1898, at the end of the Spanish-American War, and came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the ratifications were exchanged.[1]
The Treaty signaled the end of the Spanish Empire in America and the Pacific Ocean (see also the German–Spanish Treaty (1899)), and marked the beginning of an age of United States colonial power.


In accordance with the treaty, Spain:
  • Gave up all rights to Cuba (see Teller Amendment and Platt Amendment)
  • Surrendered Puerto Rico and gave up its possessions in the West Indies
  • Surrendered the island of Guam to the United States
  • Surrendered the Philippines to the United States for a payment of twenty million dollars[1


--- Full text of the Treaty ----

Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898
The United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, in the name of her august son Don Alfonso XIII, desiring to end the state of war now existing between the two countries, have for that purpose appointed as plenipotentiaries:
The President of the United States, William R. Day, Cushman K. Davis, William P. Frye, George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid, citizens of the United States;
And Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain,
Don Eugenio Montero Rios, president of the senate, Don Buenaventura de Abarzuza, senator of the Kingdom and ex-minister of the Crown; Don Jose de Garnica, deputy of the Cortes and associate justice of the supreme court; Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Villa-Urrutia, envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Brussels, and Don Rafael Cerero, general of division;
Who, having assembled in Paris, and having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in due and proper form, have, after discussion of the matters before them, agreed upon the following articles:
Article I. Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba.And as the island is, upon its evacuation by Spain, to be occupied by the United States, the United States will, so long as such occupation shall last, assume and discharge the obligations that may under international law result from the fact of its occupation, for the protection of life and property.
Article II. Spain cedes to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones.
Article III. Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within the following line:
A line running from west to east along or near the twentieth parallel of north latitude, and through the middle of the navigable channel of Bachi, from the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) to the one hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, thence along the one hundred and twenty seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the parallel of four degrees and forty five minutes (4 [degree symbol] 45']) north latitude, thence along the parallel of four degrees and forty five minutes (4 [degree symbol] 45') north latitude to its intersection with the meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty five minutes (119 [degree symbol] 35') east of Greenwich, thence along the meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty five minutes (119 [degree symbol] 35') east of Greenwich to the parallel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7 [degree symbol] 40') north, thence along the parallel of latitude of seven degrees and forty minutes (7 [degree symbol] 40') north to its intersection with the one hundred and sixteenth (116th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, thence by a direct line to the intersection of the tenth (10th) degree parallel of north latitude with the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, and thence along the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the point of beginning.The United States will pay to Spain the sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000) within three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty.
Article IV. The United States will, for the term of ten years from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, admit Spanish ships and merchandise to the ports of the Philippine Islands on the same terms as ships and merchandise of the United States.
Article V. The United States will, upon the signature of the present treaty, send back to Spain, at its own cost, the Spanish soldiers taken as prisoners of war on the capture of Manila by the American forces. The arms of the soldiers in question shall be restored to them.
Spain will, upon the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, proceed to evacuate the Philippines, as well as the island of Guam, on terms similar to those agreed upon by the Commissioners appointed to arrange for the evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, under the Protocol of August 12, 1898, which is to continue in force till its provisions are completely executed.
The time within which the evacuation of the Philippine Islands and Guam shall be completed shall be fixed by the two Governments. Stands of colors, uncaptured war vessels, small arms, guns of all calibres, with their carriages and accessories, powder, ammunition, livestock, and materials and supplies of all kinds, belonging to the land and naval forces of Spain in the Philippines and Guam, remain the property of Spain. Pieces of heavy ordnance, exclusive of field artillery, in the fortifications and coast defences, shall remain in their emplacements for the term of six months, to be reckoned from the exchange of ratifications of the treaty; and the United States may, in the meantime, purchase such material from Spain, if a satisfactory agreement between the two Governments on the subject shall be reached.
Article VI. Spain will, upon the signature of the present treaty, release all prisoners of war, and all persons detained or imprisoned for political offences, in connection with the insurrections in Cuba and the Philippines and the war with the United States.
Reciprocally, the United States will release all persons made prisoners of war by the American forces, and will undertake to obtain the release of all Spanish prisoners in the hands of the insurgents in Cuba and the Philippines.
The Government of the United States will at its own cost return to Spain and the Government of Spain will at its own cost return to the United States, Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, according to the situation of their respective homes, prisoners released or caused to be released by them, respectively, under this article.
Article VII. The United States and Spain mutually relinquish all claims for indemnity, national and individual, of every kind, of either Government, or of its citizens or subjects, against the other Government, that may have arisen since the beginning of the late insurrection in Cuba and prior to the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty, including all claims for indemnity for the cost of the war.
The United States will adjudicate and settle the claims of its citizens against Spain relinquished in this article.
Article VIII. In conformity with the provisions of Articles I, II, and III of this treaty, Spain relinquishes in Cuba, and cedes in Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, in the island of Guam, and in the Philippine Archipelago, all the buildings, wharves, barracks, forts, structures, public highways and other immovable property which, in conformity with law, belong to the public domain, and as such belong to the Crown of Spain.
And it is hereby declared that the relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, to which the preceding paragraph refers, can not in any respect impair the property or rights which by law belong to the peaceful possession of property of all kinds, of provinces, municipalities, public or private establishments, ecclesiastical or civic bodies, or any other associations having legal capacity to acquire and possess property in the aforesaid territories renounced or ceded, or of private individuals, of whatsoever nationality such individuals may be.
The aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, includes all documents exclusively referring to the sovereignty relinquished or ceded that may exist in the archives of the Peninsula. Where any document in such archives only in part relates to said sovereignty, a copy of such part will be furnished whenever it shall be requested. Like rules shall be reciprocally observed in favor of Spain in respect of documents in the archives of the islands above referred to.
In the aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, are also included such rights as the Crown of Spain and its authorities possess in respect of the official archives and records, executive as well as judicial, in the islands above referred to, which relate to said islands or the rights and property of their inhabitants. Such archives and records shall be carefully preserved, and private persons shall without distinction have the right to require, in accordance with law, authenticated copies of the contracts, wills and other instruments forming part of notorial protocols or files, or which may be contained in the executive or judicial archives, be the latter in Spain or in the islands aforesaid.
Article IX. Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, residing in the territory over which Spain by the present treaty relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty, may remain in such territory or may remove therefrom, retaining in either event all their rights of property, including the right to sell or dispose of such property or of its proceeds; and they shall also have the right to carry on their industry, commerce and professions, being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners. In case they remain in the territory they may preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain by making, before a court of record, within a year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, a declaration of their decision to preserve such allegiance; in default of which declaration they shall be held to have renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of the territory in which they may reside.
The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the Congress.
Article X. The inhabitants of the territories over which Spain relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be secured in the free exercise of their religion.
Article XI. The Spaniards residing in the territories over which Spain by this treaty cedes or relinquishes her sovereignty shall be subject in matters civil as well as criminal to the jurisdiction of the courts of the country wherein they reside, pursuant to the ordinary laws governing the same; and they shall have the right to appear before such courts, and to pursue the same course as citizens of the country to which the courts belong.
Article XII. Judicial proceedings pending at the time of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty in the territories over which Spain relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be determined according to the following rules:
  1.  Judgments rendered either in civil suits between private individuals, or in criminal matters, before the date mentioned, and with respect to which there is no recourse or right of review under the Spanish law, shall be deemed to be final, and shall be executed in due form by competent authority in the territory within which such judgments should be carried out.
  2. Civil suits between private individuals which may on the date mentioned be undetermined shall be prosecuted to judgment before the court in which they may then be pending or in the court that may be substituted therefor.
  3. Criminal actions pending on the date mentioned before the Supreme Court of Spain against citizens of the territory which by this treaty ceases to be Spanish shall continue under its jurisdiction until final judgment; but, such judgment having been rendered, the execution thereof shall be committed to the competent authority of the place in which the case arose.
Article XIII. The rights of property secured by copyrights and patents acquired by Spaniards in the Island of Cuba and in Porto Rico, the Philippines and other ceded territories, at the time of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, shall continue to be respected. Spanish scientific, literary and artistic works, not subversive of public order in the territories in question, shall continue to be admitted free of duty into such territories, for the period of ten years, to be reckoned from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty.
Article XIV. Spain will have the power to establish consular officers in the ports and places of the territories, the sovereignty over which has been either relinquished or ceded by the present treaty.
Article XV. The Government of each country will, for the term of ten years, accord to the merchant vessels of the other country the same treatment in respect of all port charges, including entrance and clearance dues, light dues, and tonnage duties, as it accords to its own merchant vessels, not engaged in the coastwise trade.
Article XVI. It is understood that any obligations assumed in this treaty by the United States with respect to Cuba are limited to the time of its occupancy thereof; but it will upon termination of such occupancy, advise any Government established in the island to assume the same obligations.
Article XVII. The present treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington within six months from the date hereof, or earlier if possible.
In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty and have hereunto affixed our seals.
Done in duplicate at Paris, the tenth day of December, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight.
[Seal] William R. Day
[Seal] Cushman K. Davis
[Seal] William P. Frye
[Seal] Geo. Gray[Seal] Whitelaw Reid
[Seal] Eugenio Montero Rios
[Seal] B. de Abarzuza
[Seal] J. de Garnica
[Seal] W. R. de Villa Urrutia
[Seal] Rafael Cerero
--- end of full text ---


Article IV of a peace protocol entered into between United States and Spain on August 2, 1898 read as follows:
The United States and Spain will each appoint not more than five commissioners to treat of peace, and the commissioners so appointed shall meet at Paris not later than Oct. 1, 1898, and proceed to the negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace, which treaty shall be subject to ratification according to the respective constitutional forms of the two countries.[2]
The composition of the American commission was somewhat unusual in that three of its members were Senators (meaning, as many newspapers pointed out, that at a later date they would vote on the ratification of their own negotiations).[3] The American delegation members were:
On September 16, U.S. President McKinley issued secret written instructions to his emissaries:
It is my earnest wish that the United States in making peace should follow the same high rule of conduct which guided it in facing war. In addition, the victor should be magnanimous in her treatment of the fallen foe; and her morality should not under any illusion of the hour be dimmed by ulterior designs which might tempt us into excessive demands or into an adventurous departure on untried paths ... The Philippines stand upon a different basis. ... without any original thought of complete or even partial acquisition, the presence and success of our arms at Manila imposes upon us obligations which we cannot disregard. The march of events rules and overrules human action. Avowing unreservedly the purpose which has animated all our effort, and still solicitous to adhere to it, we cannot be unmindful that, without any desire or design on our part, the war has brought us new duties and responsibilities which we must meet and discharge as becomes a great nation. ... Incidental to our tenure in the Philippines is the commercial opportunity to which American statesmanship cannot be indifferent. It is just to use every legitimate means for the enlargement of American trade; ... In view of what has been stated, the United States cannot accept less than the cession in full right and sovereignty of the island of Luzon. ...[4][5]
The Spanish commission included the Spanish diplomats Eugenio Montero Ríos, Buenaventura de Abarzuza, José de Garnica, Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa-Urrutia, Rafael Cerero, as well as a French diplomat, Jules Cambon.

Negotiations


John Hay, Secretary of State, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of the United States
The American delegation, headed by former Secretary of State William R. Day - who had vacated his position as United States Secretary of State in order to head the commission - arrived in Paris on September 26, 1898. The negotiations were conducted in a suite of rooms at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. At the first session on October 1, the Spanish demanded that before the talks get underway the city ofManila, which had been captured by the Americans a few hours after the signing of the peace protocol in Washington, be returned to Spanish authority. The Americans refused to consider this and for the moment it was pursued no further.[6]
For almost a month, negotiations revolved around Cuba. The Teller Amendment to the U.S. Declaration of War with Spain made it impractical for the U.S. to annex the island as it did with Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines.[6] On first instance, Spain refused to accept the Cuban national debt of four hundred million dollars, but ultimately it had no choice. Eventually, it was agreed that Cuba was to be delivered to the Cubans and the four hundred million dollar liability returned to Spain. It was also agreed that Spain would cede Guamand Puerto Rico to the United States.[7]
The negotiators then turned to the question of the Philippines. Spanish negotiators were determined to hang onto all they could, hoping to cede only Mindanao and perhaps the Sulu Islands.[7] On the American side, Chairman Day had once recommended the acquisition of only naval base in Manila as a "hitching post".[8] Others had recommended retaining just the island of Luzon. In discussions with its advisers, though, the commission concluded that Spain, if it retained part of the Philippines, would be likely to sell that part to another European power and that this would likely be troublesome for America.[9] On 25 November, the American Commission cabled President McKinley for explicit instructions. Their cable crossed one from McKinley saying that duty left him no choice but to demand the entire archipelago, the following morning, another cable from McKinley arrived, saying
... to accept merely Luzon, leaving the rest of the islands subject to Spanish rule, or to be the subject of future contention, cannot be justified on political, commercial, or humanitarian grounds. The cessation must be the whole archipelago or none. The latter is wholly inadmissible, and the former must therefore be required.[10]
On November 4, the Spanish delegation formally accepted the American demand, and Spain's Prime Minister Sagasta backed up the commission. As the specter of collapse of the negotiations grew, there were mutters about resumption of the war. U.S. election results on November 8, however, cut McKinley's Republican majority in Congress less than had been anticipated. The American delegation took heart from this, and Frye unveiled a plan of offering Spain ten or twenty million dollars for the islands.[11]
After some discussion the American delegation offered twenty million dollars on November 21, one tenth of a valuation which had been estimated in internal discussions in October, requesting an answer within two days.[12] Rios said angrily that he could reply at once, but the American delegation had already departed from the conference table. When the two sides met again, Queen-Regent Maria Christina had cabled her acceptance. Montero Rios recited the formal reply:
The Government of Her Majesty, moved by lofty reasons of patriotism and humanity, will not assume the responsibility of again bringing upon Spain all the horrors of war. In order to avoid them, it resigns itself to the painful task of submitting to the law of the victor, however harsh it may be, and as Spain lacks the material means to defend the rights she believes hers, having recorded them, she accepts the only terms the United States offers her for the concluding of the treaty of peace.[13]
Work on the final draft of the treaty began on November 30. It was signed on December 18, 1898. The next step was legislative ratification. In Madrid, the Cortes rejected it, but the Queen Regent signed it, empowered to do so by a clause in the Spanish constitution.[14]

U.S. Senate debate on ratification of the treaty

During the Senate debate to ratify the treaty, Senators George Frisbie Hoar and George Graham Vest were outspoken opponents of the treaty.
This Treaty will make us a vulgar, commonplace empire, controlling subject races and vassal states, in which one class must forever rule and other classes must forever obey.
—Senator George Frisbie Hoar
Some anti-expansionists stated that the treaty committed the United States to a course of empire and violated the most basic tenets of the United States Constitution. They argued that neither the Congress nor the President had the right to pass laws governing colonial peoples who were not represented by law-makers.
Senate Expansionists who supported the treaty said:
If the U.S. were to reject the treaty, Suppose we reject the Treaty. We continue the state of war. We repudiate the President. We are branded as a people incapable of taking rank as one of the greatest of world powers!
—Senator Henry Cabot Lodge
Providence has given the United States the duty of extending Christian civilization. We come as ministering angels, not despots.
—Senator Knute Nelson
Expansionists said that the Constitution applied only to the citizens of the United States. This idea was later supported by the Supreme Court in the Insular Cases.
As the Senate debate continued, Andrew Carnegie and former President Grover Cleveland petitioned the Senate to reject the treaty.

U.S. ratification

The controversial treaty was approved on February 6, 1899 by a vote 57 to 27, only one vote more than the two-thirds majority required.[15] Only two Republicans voted against ratification,George Frisbie Hoar of Massachusetts and Eugene Pryor Hale of Maine.

[edit]Treaty provisions

The Treaty of Paris provided that Cuba would become independent from Spain but the U.S. Congress made sure it would be under U.S. control through the Platt Amendment. Specifically, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba. Upon Cuba's evacuation by Spain, it was to be occupied by the United States, and the United States would assume and discharge any obligations that under international law could result from the fact of its occupation.
The Treaty also assured that Spain would cede to the United States the island of Puerto Rico and other islands then under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, as well as the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones.
The Treaty specified that Spain would cede to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands, and comprehending the islands lying within a specified line.
In accordance with the treaty, Spain:
  • Gave up all rights to Cuba (see Teller Amendment and Platt Amendment)
  • Surrendered Puerto Rico and gave up its possessions in the West Indies
  • Surrendered the island of Guam to the United States
  • Surrendered the Philippines to the United States for a payment of twenty million dollars[16]



William McKinley: The Acquisition of the Philippines

By a protocol signed at Washington August 12, 1898 . . . it was agreed that the United States and Spain would each appoint not more than five commissioners to treat of peace, and that the commissioners so appointed should meet at Paris not later than October 1, 1898, and proceed to the negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace, which treaty should be subject to ratification according to the respective constitutional forms of the two countries.
For the purpose of carrying into effect this stipulation, I have appointed you as commissioners on the part of the United States to meet and confer with commissioners on the part of Spain.
As an essential preliminary to the agreement to appoint commissioners to treat of peace, this government required of that of Spain the unqualified concession of the following precise demands:
  1. The relinquishment of all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba.
  2. The cession to the United States of Puerto Rico and other islands under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies.
  3. The cession of an island in the Ladrones, to be selected by the United States.
  4. The immediate evacuation by Spain of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other Spanish islands in the West Indies.
  5. The occupation by the United States of the city, bay, and harbor of Manila pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which should determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines.
These demands were conceded by Spain, and their concession was, as you will perceive, solemnly recorded in the protocol of the 12th of August. . . .
It is my wish that throughout the negotiations entrusted to the Commission the purpose and spirit with which the United States accepted the unwelcome necessity of war should be kept constantly in view. We took up arms only in obedience to the dictates of humanity and in the fulfillment of high public and moral obligations. We had no design of aggrandizement and no ambition of conquest. Through the long course of repeated representations which preceded and aimed to avert the struggle, and in the final arbitrament of force, this country was impelled solely by the purpose of relieving grievous wrongs and removing long-existing conditions which disturbed its tranquillity, which shocked the moral sense of mankind, and which could no longer be endured.
It is my earnest wish that the United States in making peace should follow the same high rule of conduct which guided it in facing war. It should be as scrupulous and magnanimous in the concluding settlement as it was just and humane in its original action. The luster and the moral strength attaching to a cause which can be confidently rested upon the considerate judgment of the world should not under any illusion of the hour be dimmed by ulterior designs which might tempt us into excessive demands or into an adventurous departure on untried paths. It is believed that the true glory and the enduring interests of the country will most surely be served if an unselfish duty conscientiously accepted and a signal triumph honorably achieved shall be crowned by such an example of moderation, restraint, and reason in victory as best comports with the traditions and character of our enlightened republic.
Our aim in the adjustment of peace should be directed to lasting results and to the achievement of the common good under the demands of civilization, rather than to ambitious designs. The terms of the protocol were framed upon this consideration. The abandonment of the Western Hemisphere by Spain was an imperative necessity. In presenting that requirement, we only fulfilled a duty universally acknowledged. It involves no ungenerous reference to our recent foe, but simply a recognition of the plain teachings of history, to say that it was not compatible with the assurance of permanent peace on and near our own territory that the Spanish flag should remain on this side of the sea. This lesson of events and of reason left no alternative as to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the other islands belonging to Spain in this hemisphere.
The Philippines stand upon a different basis. It is nonetheless true, however, that without any original thought of complete or even partial acquisition, the presence and success of our arms at Manila imposes upon us obligations which we cannot disregard. The march of events rules and overrules human action. Avowing unreservedly the purpose which has animated all our effort, and still solicitous to adhere to it, we cannot be unmindful that, without any desire or design on our part, the war has brought us new duties and responsibilities which we must meet and discharge as becomes a great nation on whose growth and career from the beginning the ruler of nations has plainly written the high command and pledge of civilization.
Incidental to our tenure in the Philippines is the commercial opportunity to which American statesmanship cannot be indifferent. It is just to use every legitimate means for the enlargement of American trade; but we seek no advantages in the Orient which are not common to all. Asking only the open door for ourselves, we are ready to accord the open door to others. The commercial opportunity which is naturally and inevitably associated with this new opening depends less on large territorial possession than upon an adequate commercial basis and upon broad and equal privileges. . . .
In view of what has been stated, the United States cannot accept less than the cession in full right and sovereignty of the island of Luzon. It is desirable, however, that the United States shall acquire the right of entry for vessels and merchandise belonging to citizens of the United States into such ports of the Philippines as are not ceded to the United States upon terms of equal favor with Spanish ships and merchandise, both in relation to port and customs charges and rates of trade and commerce, together with other rights of protection and trade accorded to citizens of one country within the territory of another. You are therefore instructed to demand such concession, agreeing on your part that Spain shall have similar rights as to her subjects and vessels in the ports of any territory in the Philippines ceded to the United States.
Source: U.S., Department of State, Papers Relating to Foreign Affairs, 1898, pp. 904-908.


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Here are some of my recent findings, not as a professional historian, but as a curious individual.

These findings are based on commercial and legal documents whose original purposes were for documentation as required by law and contracts.

Yet, such documents are a very important source of history.

After all, history is sourced from documents, not the other way around.

Now, let us proceed to the untold history.

Here is what history books do not tell us. This origin is taken from a document. Remember, documents were not written for history. There were encoded and entered as transactions in the ordinary course of business on a day to day basis. Unlike history, documents do not make up angles or perspectives or interpretations.

One document, a certificate of land title, numbered OCT-01-4 which was created formally in 1764 (yes, it's that old), was preserved, and re-constituted, and re-created and re-registered whenever the land registration laws changed over the years, contains certain annotations at the back.

One such annotation is relevant to:

Treaty of Paris December 10, 1898

The annotation is dated Feb 7, 1898 with annotation number EDC-073  s-2-6-1898 signed by 
FERMIN JAUDENES Y ALVAREZ, Ad Interim Governor General Royal Crown of Spain

EDC-073
S-2-6
1898
Secured by this Title, OCT No. T-01-4, Hacienda Mabiga embracing the whole Province of Pampanga, Kuliat, the whole of Bamban and Capaz, Tarlac has mortgage to the Banco Español-Filipino, the sum of U.S. Dollar 20,000,000.00. to undertake the payment of secession treaty between Spain and American for the ceding of the archipelago by the Spanish Government to the American Government be eventually reverted to the real land owner, Don Esteban Benitez Tallano.
Date of Document : February 2,1898
(Sgd) FERMIN JAUDENES Y ALVAREZ
Ad Interim Governor General Royal Crown of Spain
February 7, 1898



What does the above transactional annotation document in the land title OCT-01-4 tell us?

It tells us what history books have failed to capture.

1. A parcel of land referred to a Hacienda Mabiga had been mortgaged.

2. Hacienda Mabiga is secured by title OCT No. T-01-4.

3. Hacienda Mabiga embraces the whole Province of Pampanga, Kuliat, the whole of Bamban and Capaz, Tarlac.

4. Haciend Mabiga was mortgaged to Banco Espanol-Filipino.
(Now, known as Bank of the Philippine Islands BPI)

5. The principal loan amount was US$20 million.

6. The annotation specifically mentions the purpose of the loan:  to undertake the payment of secession treaty between Spain and American for the ceding of the archipelago by the Spanish Government to the American Government.


7. A specific condition was imposed: be eventually reverted to the real land owner, Don Esteban Benitez Tallano.


8. The mortgage document was dated February 2, 1898.


9.  The real owner is Don Esteban Benitez Tallano.


10. This title was OCT No. T-01-4.


11. The annotation was signed by FERMIN JAUDENES Y ALVAREZ, Ad Interim Governor General Royal Crown of Spain.


12. The United States did not use its own money.


13. The money came from private persons, specifically the OCT No. T-01-4 owned Don Esteban Benitez Tallano, the heir of Prince Lacan

14. The Spaniards knew before December 10, 1898 that the money was already available

15. The money came from Banco Espanol-Filipino (now known as Bank of the Philippines Islands or BPI).

16. The sitting Spanish Governor General himself signed the annotation, further ensuring Spain that the money is available.

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As you have noticed, the annotations and the history accounts dovetail in agreement.

This is what the history books failed to capture, but in reality was documented not by a historian, but by an officer who was doing his work in the ordinary course of business on day to day basis.


And this is a validation, once again, of the existence, the validity, and the authenticity of Torrens Title OCT-01-4 issued in favor of


"Prince Lacan Acuña Tallano Tagean (formerly Tagean Clan), married with
Princess Rowena Ma. Elizabeth Overbeck Macleod of Austria,
the owner in Fee simple of certain lands, known as HACIENDA FILIPINA"

(email me to get a scanned copy of the title issued by the register of deeds)

Note: The early transcriptions were in Spanish but the government had its translated into English through the efforts of then Solicitor General Felix Makasiar under Pres. Diosdado Macapagal (who later become Chief Justice under Marcos). Therefore, the government itself has consistently recognized the validity and the authenticity of OCT 01-4.


History from original source documents! What a refreshing perspective!